Diabetes is split into Type 1 and type 2, each has their own specific characteristics and requirements.
Diabetes is split into Type 1 and type 2, each has their own specific characteristics and requirements. Both types of diabetes need to be treated with caution and dealt with medically in their own specific ways.
What is the Difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetics are insulin dependent and need to take insulin regularly. Insulin production is governed by beta cells in the pancreas, and these have stopped working thus causing the need to ingest extra insulin.
Type 2 diabetics suffer from insulin resistance which means the insulin that is being produced is not working correctly, or not enough insulin is being produced. Approximately 85% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes.
Effects exercise has on diabetes?
Exercise has a positive effect on diabetes, including the following:
Exercise can increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin
Exercise can enhances the use of blood glucose
Exercise can help reduce body fat
Exercise can help reduce cholesterol levels
Exercise helps improve circulation in the body especially In the arms and legs
By increasing the body’s sensitivity to insulin and enhancing the use of blood glucose exercise positively affects diabetic individuals. Type 1 diabetics may be able to reduce their insulin medication while type 2 diabetics may experience lower levels of blood glucose due to the greater uptake from the exercise.
What precautions to consider?
The two main precautions to consider are hypoglycemia (blood sugar dropping too low) and hyperglycemia (blood sugar being too high).
Exercise may induce hypoglycaemia in diabetic individuals who are already slightly hypoglycemic or close to being hypoglycemic. This may arise due to the exercise using blood glucose thus reducing the levels of blood glucose. To be safe it is recommended that a diabetic individual should always test their sugar 30min before exercising and immediately before exercising again.
Hyperglycemia is less likely to occur as a result of exercise, rather individuals that are hyperglycemic might injure themselves due to the symptoms associated with hyperglycemia like dizziness, fatigue, weakness, confusion and thirst. To be safe it is recommended that a diabetic individual should always test their sugar 30min before exercising.
Are there certain exercises to avoid or to definitely incorporate?
Almost all exercise types are good to do for diabetic individuals, specific focus can be placed on compound exercises and cardiorespiratory fitness. Experts advise a minimum of 150 min of exercise per week for diabetic individuals. Exercise such as brisk walking, swimming laps and cycling are some of the basic activities that can be engaged in at the start of an exercise regime. This can increase in intensity and frequency as the individual gets fitter and used to exercising.Incorporating skipping with little to no rest with compound movements and high intensity interval training will have many overall health benefits, not only benefits with diabetes symptoms.
Certain exercises need to be done with caution, long distance events such as cycling races, half marathons, marathons and ultra-marathons and distance swimming. Events of such a nature that require prolonged exertions may lead to blood glucose levels dropping steadily. Diabetic participants in such activities need to be cautious and regularly eat certain foods like fruit, snack bars, energy bars or sports drinks to ensure a safe blood glucose level is maintained. Repeated short duration, explosive exercise that requires maximal effort may also deplete blood glucose levels, thus participants in events such as bodybuilding, sports matches and powerlifting need to be cautious that their blood glucose levels remain at a safe level. Once again it is recommended for safety reasons that participants in such sports regularly check their blood sugar levels and keep with them foods to help correct low blood pressure, or their insulin medication.